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THEMA: Invincibility of Carbon

Invincibility of Carbon 11 Jahre 9 Monate her #98

The following thoughts on the Invincibility of Carbon are inspired by the recent research on graphene published 25 January 2011 in Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 04 5502 and are dedicated to Margot Süttmann. The research fits into the theme of 2011 as the Year of Chemisty.

First a summary of the research findings on graphene is presented using freely the informations available in the internet and then an interpretation of the findings is given based on the approach to vedic chemisty published in the Veda Magazine

1. Findings

Graphene, first systematically produced 2004 by A. Geim at the University of Manchester, is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with quantum superpowers. Adding to the remarkable properties of this carbon modification P. San-Jose, F. Guinea, and J. Gonzalez at Madrid's Institute for Material Science have shown, that graphene can be used to understand the Higgs Mechanism of symmetry breaking.

The orginal title of their paper is "Electron-Induced Rippling in Graphene". In Phys. Rev. Lett.,106,045502 (2011) the researchers give the following summary of their finding:
We show that the interaction between flexural phonons(tensions or vibrations), when corrected by the exchange of electron-hole excitations, may drive the graphene sheet into a quantum critical point characterized by the vanishing of the bending rigidity of the membrane. Ripples arise then due to spontaneous symmetry breaking, following a mechanism similar to that responsible for the condensation of the Higgs field in relativistic field theories, and leading to a zero-temperature buckling transition in which the order parameter is given by the square of the gradient of the flexural phonon(tension or vibration) field.

The Higgs Mechanism is used in cosmology to understand how the unified state of the four fundamental forces existing at the extremely high temperatures of the Big Bang, a perfectly symmetrical but unstable situation, is transformed during the cooling expansion of the universe into a stable state in which gravity, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear force are clearly separated. The same mechanism has been found in many other physical processes, including phase transitions, such as the critical temperature/pressure point where water turns into ice or when the superfluid and superconducting states of matter emerge.

Now this symmetry breaking mechanism is also found working in the behaviour of graphene. At P. Armitage, a condensed matter physicist at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, in commenting on the Spanish team's paper, is quoted as saying:
It's incredibly interesting that nature repeats on the large scale and the small scale the same general idea in different forms. Graphene can now join superconductors in the category of Cool Materials That Generate Mass with a Higgs-Like Mechanism in the Solid State by giving rise to a similar effect as the Meissner effect: A magnetic field can only penetrate a short distance inside a superconductor, and this effect is equivalent to saying that the (usually massless) photons propagating into the superconductor have acquired a mass by virtue of the Higgs Mechanism.

The Higgs mechanism is a form of superconductivity in the vacuum. It considers all of space and time filled with a relativistically invariant quantum fluid called the Higgs field, whose motion prevents certain forces from propagating over long distances. Quantized oscillation of the Higgs field appears as a new particle, called the Higgs Boson.

The emergence of ripples in graphene when subject to variable tension may shed further light on this mechanism. The three Spanish scientists argue that ripples in graphene arise from a spontaneous symmetry-breaking process similar to that which separated the weak and electromagnetic forces in the early universe. This electroweak symmetry breaking can be explained in terms of a field – the Higgs field – shifting from an effectively empty high-energy state to its ground state, filling space with a Bosonic field that gives some particles their mass. The yet-to-be-detected Higgs boson is the particle associated with vibrations of this field, and is currently being sought in the LHC. In the same way as the activation of the Higgs field is tied to the breaking of the electroweak symmetry graphene loses some symmetry in the transition from a flat shape to a rippled one.

The energy landscape of graphene rippling in 2D and that of the Higgs field in 3D, are described by similar Mexican hat potentials. Like a sombrero, the potential energy starts high in the centre but quickly falls away to a minimum in any direction. The negative curvature at the top ensures that symmetry will break spontaneously – any push from the centre sends the system down towards a stable point in the brim, just where the edge of the hat begins to climb again. In the case of graphene, the negative curvature is a result of how graphene responds to being stretched or compressed. In particle physics, negative curvature is a result of the relationship between the Higgs field and the bare mass of the Higgs boson. In order to be unstable, this bare mass must be imaginary – the Higgs boson acquires a real, effective mass when the field reaches its true stable ground state.

The Spanish scientists predict, that measuring the rippling of graphene under variable tension could give us information about the details of the intrinsic condensation of the Higgs boson, which gets its mass from vibrations in the Higgs field. In addition to rippling under pressure, physicists also know that small, spontaneous ripples do form in graphene even without compression due to temperature fluctuations. Small, spontaneous ripples in the absence of compression, suggest that the Higgs field may condense without requiring an imaginary bare mass for the Higgs boson.


2. Interpretation

The research on graphene is very enlightening to all those who are studying or applying the relationship between the objective approach of modern science and the subjective approach of Transcendental Meditation, the vedic research methodology of consciousness.

This is due to the analogy relation between Meissner Effect and Higgs Mechanism. The Meissner Effect prevents the penetration of an applied magnetic field into the interior of a superconductor. This happens because the previously massless field particle e.g. the photon, becomes massive and - by loosing its long-range propagation - the range of force becomes short. The Meissner Effect thus illustrates the protective role of the Higgs Mechanism which drives a system from an unstable into a stable situation by making a massless force particle massive.

The significance of this paradigm for the Higgs Mechanism to research in consciousness is that the Meissner-Effect serves as model to explains the invincibility which characterizes the macroscopic order connected with higher states of consciousness, e.g. the brain wave coherence of enlightenment or the collective coherence of nations exhibiting the Maharishi Effect.

Higher consciousness has a natural protective function for which the concept of invincibility has been introduced in the 1970s at Maharishi European Research University.

The chemical element carbon is prone to such a behaviour due to its low heat capacity. Low heat capacity is based on the prevalence of quantum mechanical behaviour or in other words is due to the existence of a large energy gap between ground state and first excited state. The solid with the smallest heat capacity (in the temperature range from 0 to 300 Kelvin) is diamond, which has the smallest volume per atom and exceptionally strong forces between adjacent atoms. Because of its relatively low mass and closely spaced atoms, quantum effects exist from near 0 K to diamond’s unusually high Debye temperature of 2230 K. Diamond’s high Debye temperature results from its vibrational energy being dominated by high-frequency oscillations. Put differently, diamond’s lattice is stiff, as indicated by its exceptional hardness.

Natural diamonds are formed at high-pressure high-temperature conditions from graphite. Graphite has a specific heat that is about 50% higher than diamond but still lower than any other solid. Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheets of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite. In addition to graphite graphene is also the basic structural element of charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Graphene can be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

From this facts it is obvious why the recent findings about graphene are so enlightening to our understanding of invincibility. The invincibility of carbon has been described from a vedic perspective as transformation in appearance (vivart):

The logic behind the transformation in appearance is the principle of symmetry breaking. Seen from the subjective perspective of Transcendental Meditation the principle says, that an unbounded quantum mechanical field responds to restrictions by creating stationary wave structures.
From a geometrical perspective this can be expressed by saying, that carbon is represented by icosahedral symmetry which being closest to a sphere has a highly degenerated ground state. In mathematical quantum chemistry this is the basis for the spherical atom approximation, where atomic multiplet states are highly degenerate. If the degeneracy, representing many possibilities, is restricted structures may emerge while the overall holistic nature is maintained.

This is the idea behind the very successful approach of Hückel to compute the properties of the large variety of organic carbon compounds in the frame work of the quantum mechanical Molecular Orbital Theory. The quantum mechanical basis of the carbon atom geometry thus ensures a unified understanding of the whole of organic chemistry as the chemistry of carbon.

As the recent research on graphene suggests, the nature of carbon allows for the invincibility of life when the quantum level is enlivened by virtue of the Higgs mechanism. Typical for the invincibility of Carbon is:
(1) the high geometric variability of shapes, and
(2) the tunability of structure and/or function via interactions between acustic vibrations and electrons.
Letzte Änderung: 11 Jahre 8 Monate her von admin. Begründung: better readability of text
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